Advanced Cardiac Procedures: Understanding Angioplasty, Stenting, Heart Bypass Surgery, and Pacemaker Implantation

Angioplasty Treatment in Vellore | Muhil Heart Centre
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Advancements in medical technology have revolutionized the field of cardiology, offering advanced procedures to treat complex cardiac conditions. In this blog post, we will explore some of these cutting-edge interventions, including angioplasty, stenting, heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft – CABG), and pacemaker implantation. 

These procedures of angioplasty treatment in Vellore at Muhil Heart Centre have become essential in improving patient outcomes, restoring blood flow, and enhancing overall cardiac function. Understanding the benefits and applications of these advanced cardiac procedures is crucial in managing various heart conditions effectively.

Angioplasty and Balloon Angioplasty

Angioplasty, also referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is a minimally invasive medical procedure utilized for the treatment of narrowed or obstructed arteries, commonly caused by atherosclerosis. 

This procedure aims to restore proper blood flow to the affected area by widening the narrowed artery and improving its overall function using a thin, flexible tube called a catheter, which is inserted into the affected artery, usually through the groin or wrist.

Angioplasty Treatment in Vellore | Muhil Heart Centre

During the angioplasty treatment in Vellore, a deflated balloon attached to the catheter is positioned at the site of the blockage. This process serves to alleviate the narrowing and allows for the restoration of smooth blood flow within the artery. This process is called balloon angioplasty. In some cases, a stent may be placed during the procedure to help keep the artery open.

Angioplasty treatment in Vellore offers several advantages over traditional open-heart surgery. It is minimally invasive, resulting in shorter recovery times, reduced hospital stays, and lower risks compared to surgical procedures. Angioplasty is highly effective in relieving symptoms such as chest pain (angina) and improving blood flow to the heart muscle.

Stenting of Angioplasty Treatment in Vellore

Stenting is a procedure often performed alongside angioplasty. After the artery has been widened with balloon angioplasty, a stent is placed to provide structural support and prevent the artery from narrowing again. A stent is a small, mesh-like tube typically made of metal or fabric.

During the procedure of heart bypass surgery in Vellore, the collapsed stent is placed over a deflated balloon and inserted into the artery. When the balloon is inflated, the stent expands and attaches to the artery walls, acting as a scaffold that keeps the artery open. Over time, the stent promotes the growth of healthy tissue around it, ensuring the artery remains open and blood flow is maintained.

Stenting has significantly improved the long-term success of angioplasty. It reduces the risk of recurrent blockages and the need for repeat procedures. Depending on the patient’s condition, drug-eluting stents may be used. These stents are coated with medication that helps prevent the re-narrowing of the artery.

Heart Bypass Surgery/Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

Heart bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to treat severe coronary artery disease. This angioplasty treatment in Vellore involves creating new pathways, or bypasses, for blood to flow around blocked or narrowed coronary arteries, improving blood supply to the heart muscle. Before the procedure, the surgeon will also inform about the heart bypass surgery cost In Vellore.

During the procedure, a cardiothoracic surgeon takes a healthy blood vessel, usually from the leg (saphenous vein) or chest (internal mammary artery), and grafts it onto the coronary artery, bypassing the blockage. This creates an alternative route for blood to reach the heart muscle, bypassing the narrowed or blocked segment. 

CABG is typically recommended for patients with severe blockages, multiple blockages, or those who have not responded well to other treatments. The surgery is performed at a reasonable heart bypass surgery cost In Vellore. The patients will be under general anesthesia, and the heart is temporarily stopped using a heart-lung bypass machine, allowing the surgeon to work on a still heart

The heart bypass surgery in Vellore provides long-lasting benefits, improving blood flow and reducing the risk of heart attacks. It alleviates symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue, enabling patients to engage in regular activities with improved quality of life. Recovery from CABG generally requires a hospital stay, followed by a period of rehabilitation and lifestyle modifications.

Pacemaker Implantation

Pacemaker implantation is a procedure used to treat abnormal heart rhythms, specifically bradycardia (a slow heart rate) or certain types of arrhythmias. A pacemaker is a small electronic device that monitors the heart’s electrical activity and delivers electrical impulses to regulate the heart rate and rhythm.

During this angioplasty treatment in Vellore, a pacemaker is implanted under the skin, usually near the collarbone. The pacemaker is connected to one or more leads (thin wires), which are threaded through veins and positioned in the heart chambers. The leads detect the heart’s electrical signals and deliver appropriate impulses when necessary.

Pacemakers have evolved over time, becoming smaller, more sophisticated, and capable of adapting to a patient’s specific needs. They can sense changes in activity levels, automatically adjust heart rate, and conserve battery life. Modern pacemakers are often equipped with features such as reasonable heart bypass surgery cost In Vellore, rate-responsive pacing, which adjusts the heart rate based on physical activity.

This heart bypass surgery in Vellore is generally performed under local anesthesia, and the procedure itself takes about an hour. Recovery time is usually short, and patients experience improved heart rhythm, relief from symptoms such as fatigue and dizziness, and an enhanced quality of life.

What are the Risks of Angioplasty? 

Angioplasty, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is a medical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked arteries, particularly in the heart. While angioplasty treatment in Vellore is generally considered safe and effective, like any medical intervention, it carries certain risks and potential complications. 

1. Bleeding and Hematoma

During angioplasty, a catheter is inserted through a blood vessel, which can occasionally lead to bleeding at the insertion site. In some cases, a hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessel) can develop. While minor bleeding is common and usually resolves on its own, severe bleeding or a large hematoma may require additional intervention.

2. Blood Vessel Damage

The insertion of catheters into blood vessels can potentially cause damage to the blood vessel walls. This may result in injury to the vessel, leading to complications such as blood vessel narrowing, clot formation, or even a tear in the vessel (dissection). Such complications might necessitate further procedures or treatments.

3. Infection

Although rare, there is a risk of infection at the catheter insertion site. Signs of infection include redness, swelling, pain, or drainage at the site. Infections can usually be treated with antibiotics, but severe cases may require additional medical attention.

4. Blood Clots

During or after angioplasty treatment in Vellore, blood clots can form within the treated artery or the stent (if one is inserted). These clots can lead to reduced blood flow or complete blockage of the artery, potentially causing a heart attack or other serious complications.

5. Allergic Reactions

Contrast dye is often used during angioplasty to help visualize the blood vessels. Some individuals may be allergic to the contrast dye, which can lead to allergic reactions ranging from mild skin irritation to more severe reactions like difficulty breathing. Precautions are usually taken to minimize the risk of allergic reactions.

6. Kidney Damage

Contrast dye used in angioplasty can sometimes affect kidney function, particularly in individuals with preexisting kidney issues. This is more likely to occur in those with diabetes or reduced kidney function. Adequate hydration and monitoring can help mitigate this risk.

7. Coronary Artery Dissection

Angioplasty can potentially cause a dissection in the coronary artery, where the layers of the artery wall separate. This can lead to a reduction in blood flow and, in severe cases, may require additional procedures or surgery to repair the artery.

8. Restenosis

Although angioplasty is intended to widen narrowed arteries, there is a risk of the treated artery becoming narrowed again over time due to scar tissue formation (restenosis). This risk is higher if a stent was not used during the procedure.

9. Stroke

In rare cases, debris dislodged during the angioplasty procedure can travel to the brain and cause a stroke. This risk is higher when the procedure involves arteries that supply blood to the brain.

10. Heart Attack

While angioplasty is often performed to prevent heart attacks, there is a small risk of causing a heart attack during the procedure due to dislodging plaque or clot material.


Advanced cardiac procedures, including angioplasty, stenting, heart bypass surgery (CABG), and pacemaker implantation, have transformed the management of complex cardiac conditions. 

This angioplasty treatment in Vellore performed at Muhil Heart Centre offers effective solutions, restores blood flow, and enhances cardiac function, resulting in improved patient outcomes and quality of life. Understanding these advanced interventions empowers patients and healthcare professionals alike in making informed decisions for optimal cardiac care.

Frequently Asked Questions

Angioplasty is a medical procedure performed to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, typically coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. During angioplasty, a catheter with a balloon on its tip is inserted into the affected artery and inflated to widen the narrowed area, improving blood flow.

Angioplasty is typically performed in a specialized cardiac catheterization lab. The procedure begins with the administration of local anesthesia, after which a catheter is inserted through an artery, usually in the groin or wrist, and threaded up to the affected coronary artery. Once in place, a balloon is inflated to widen the artery, and often a stent is inserted to help keep the artery open.

The duration of an angioplasty procedure can vary depending on the complexity and number of blockages being treated. On average, the procedure takes around 30 minutes to an hour. However, the overall time spent in the catheterization lab may be longer due to preparations and recovery.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure that can clear blockages in arteries. During angioplasty, a catheter with a deflated balloon at its tip is inserted into the blocked artery, and the balloon is inflated to push the blockage aside, widening the artery and restoring blood flow. In some cases, a stent may be placed to keep the artery open. Angioplasty is a common treatment for coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease, effectively relieving symptoms and improving blood flow to the affected areas.

Whether a 70% blockage in an artery requires angioplasty depends on various factors, including the location of the blockage, symptoms, and the patient’s overall health. In some cases, a 70% blockage may not cause significant symptoms or require immediate intervention. However, if the blockage is in a critical location, causing symptoms like chest pain, or if the patient is at high risk for complications, angioplasty may be recommended to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of further issues.